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Old 19th June 2012, 11:08 AM   #1
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Default Intel Xeon Phi co-processor (GPGPU)

=> http://www.techpowerup.com/167870/In...rocessors.html

Remember Intel's Larrabee project? It was to be their first discrete video card in a long time. Unfortunately, it failed as a GPU and was cancelled in 2010. However, the research and resources from that project wasn't thrown away...It was adapted to the high-performance computing role (supercomputing) under a new name: Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (Intel MIC).

The first card was codenamed "Knights Ferry". This was a development prototype solution that was never sold commercially. It was given to various commercial and academic developers around the world to tinker with.

According to Wikipedia: It was a PCIe card with 32 in-order cores at up to 1.2 GHz with 4 threads per core, 2 GB GDDR5 memory, and 8 MB coherent L2 cache (256 kB per core with 32 kB L1 cache), and a power requirement of ~300 W, built at a 45 nm process

Performance was approx 750 GFLOPS under single precision.


Today, (at Hamburg International Supercomputing Conference 2012), Intel has announced the commercialised implementation of their MIC architecture. Codenamed "Knights Corner", it will be marketed under the Intel Xeon Phi brand.

Quote:
Beyond its compatibility with x86 programming models, the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor will be visible to applications as an HPC-optimized, highly-parallel, separate compute node that runs its own Linux-based operating system independent of the host OS. This feature allows more flexibility when implementing cluster solutions that are not available with alternative graphics accelerator-based technologies.

Made with Intel's innovative 22nm, 3-D tri-gate transistors, the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor, available in a PCIe form factor, contains more than 50 cores and a minimum of 8GB of GDDR5 memory. It also features 512b wide SIMD support that improves performance by enabling multiple data elements to be processed with a single instruction. Last year Intel showed a live demonstration of the single Knights Corner coprocessor delivering over 1 TeraFLOPs (1 trillion floating point operations per second) of double precision real life performance, as measured by DGEMM. At ISC'12 Intel demonstrated the same effective performance of more than 1 TeraFLOPs per node but measured by the industry standard benchmark Linpack (Rmax)1. By comparison, in 1997, it took more than 9000 Intel® Pentium® processors inside the ASCII RED* supercomputer to break the 1 TeraFLOPs barrier.

While initial production product shipments are planned for the second half of 2012, Intel has announced that the first Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor-based development cluster is up and running and ranked 149th on the Top500 list, delivering 118 TFLOPs of performance.
According to Top500's current list, its now ranked 150th.
=> http://www.top500.org/list/2012/06/200

If you're a developer with access to the hardware, the Knights Corner instruction set documentation is found here.
=> http://software.intel.com/en-us/foru...d.php?t=105443


...For those who must ask: No, you won't be able to play Crysis on it. But you will be able to Fold with it. (Presuming you can afford one when its released!)
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Old 19th June 2012, 11:29 AM   #2
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Been able to teraflop fold for years. Intel is playing catch up. I wouldn't bother, buy more radeons instead. You'd be able to fill your computer with those for less than what one of these devices would cost.
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Old 19th June 2012, 11:30 AM   #3
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Quote:
Originally Posted by stmok View Post
...For those who must ask: No, you won't be able to play Crysis on it
so it's useless then?



Quote:
Originally Posted by Reaper View Post
Been able to teraflop fold for years. Intel is playing catch up. I wouldn't bother, buy more radeons instead. You'd be able to fill your computer with those for less than what one of these devices would cost.
It could be competitive depending on the performance/watt and its bandwidth requirement when compared to the traditional GPGPU competitors (i.e. quattro/firepro).
One of the big selling points of GPGPU on a large scale basis is that the core density is much, much greater that that of the traditional cpu based systems, if this can execute X86/X64 instructions then this could be a real competitor in the HPC sector.

Edit:


http://theburnerishot.com/photo/Knights-Ferry-8-Way.jpg

Last edited by bobbth; 19th June 2012 at 12:34 PM.
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Old 19th June 2012, 11:35 AM   #4
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if it can execute x86 instructions, then it might be good for renderes that dont support gpgpu...but i highly doubt it would...I dream of cpu add-in cards :/
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Old 19th June 2012, 10:21 PM   #5
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A long time ago in a galaxy far far away....

Intel sold the i960 (no not the 960 your thinking of) as a coprocessor on a card.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_i960
Back when people were sporting 286's and 386's having a 32bit risc processor on a ISA slot was woohoo. Last time they were used were in things like printers.

Intel's key strength is that they write compilers that people use and they can get people coding for things.

I think Intel has missed the boat. GPU's are now the default daughtercard processors, and the design of GPU's have been evolved to make them more useful at non rendering data processor. People will spend $500 or $5000 on a GPU that also kicks butt in data and graphics rather than $5000 for something thats only going to be used in some software that doesn't exist.
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Physics is being canned because it is irrelevant in the 21st century Australian economy. We to give our children the skills they need to become lawyers and real estate agents.
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Old 19th June 2012, 10:27 PM   #6
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a long-ish time ago there was this as well

http://www.protograph.co.uk/artvps.html

basically a bunch of fpga's on a board to accelerate raytracing.

these guys were ahead of the gpgpu curve though, and charged way too much for it. which is a pity, if it caught on then we might have better options today
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Old 20th June 2012, 10:55 AM   #7
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I hadn't heard much about those guys. Still kicking I see. Seemed like they had some interesting features going there.

However these days most people seem better off with a few more GPU's or a renderfarm or what not. The thing about having more x86 power is that you can run whatever you dam want on it and not be tied to a path that goes nowhere.

You could build a 8-12 node AMD (6 or 8 core) or intel (4 core) farm. Which could be used for rendering, post processing, encoding, etc. Able to split between workloads etc as per required.

8120FX cpus are like $160 now. 1045t can be had ~$110. $200 a node?.
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Old 20th June 2012, 10:59 AM   #8
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why do people think it will be expensive? i was hoping they will be cost competitive with to gpu solutions
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Old 20th June 2012, 2:36 PM   #9
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why do people think it will be expensive? i was hoping they will be cost competitive with to gpu solutions
Because its targeted for the "high performance computing" market.

Other cards in the same market are Nvidia's Tesla series and AMD's FireStream series...Just look up the prices for those lines, and you'll understand.

ie:
NVIDIA Tesla C870 => ~AUD$500 to AUD$700
NVIDIA Tesla C1060 => ~AUD$1500 to AUD$1600
NVIDIA Tesla C2075 => ~AUD$2500 to AUD$2600
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Old 20th June 2012, 4:32 PM   #10
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Quote:
Originally Posted by stmok View Post
According to Wikipedia: It was a PCIe card with 32 in-order cores at up to 1.2 GHz with 4 threads per core, 2 GB GDDR5 memory, and 8 MB coherent L2 cache (256 kB per core with 32 kB L1 cache), and a power requirement of ~300 W, built at a 45 nm process

Performance was approx 750 GFLOPS under single precision.


Today, (at Hamburg International Supercomputing Conference 2012), Intel has announced the commercialised implementation of their MIC architecture. Codenamed "Knights Corner", it will be marketed under the Intel Xeon Phi brand.



According to Top500's current list, its now ranked 150th.
=> http://www.top500.org/list/2012/06/200
Pft, we just installed a system that now sits in position 29 almost right under my feet, two floors down
65 TB of RAM, 65,536 cores. Wonder if my account allows me to ssh in to avoca yet ;D
Doubt it
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Old 25th June 2012, 12:38 AM   #11
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Either way, I'd think that these systems would really get some folding done when set up right and singing.
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Old 25th June 2012, 11:02 PM   #12
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Seems like a damn good idea for pure grunt work.
The Pentium core and instruction set are well understood. They were a comparatively simple processor and arguably the first really modern CPU. The 486 you might think had the FPU, but it spoke directly to its ram and cache and I think the Vesa Local Bus without a chipset per se, so it cannot claim this title.

Obviously x86 knowledge is everywhere, so optimisation is easy.
Investment into this platform will last. Nvidia could arbitrarily decide to stop support for CUDA at their next architectural refresh and no one would be able to do jack. Whatever you write for this will run on any cpu for the forseeable future.

Presumably multiple units can be installed in a machine. It's hard to top the flexibility of 200 CPU's over a graphics card.
Can a graphics card run a bunch of Virtual Machines? I doubt it, but this puppy should be able to.

Graphics cards, even with their abilities are still specialist devices requiring specialist coders and there's always the risk that Nvidia or AMD could simply go under.


That's why it will sell. Because in the high density space, it is pure generic grunt. It's a tractor, not a dune buggy.

Nice concept. Nice to know someone still has respect for Keep It Simple Stupid.
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Old 1st July 2012, 5:31 PM   #13
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Intel Xeon Phi steals top HPC tenders, more SKUs to come
=> http://vr-zone.com/articles/intel-xe...ome/16410.html

According to the above link, the Xeon Phi offers advantages over current GPU based solutions.

(1) Easier to port code to...Because it uses x86 + SIMD instead of OpenCL or CUDA.

Quote:
...according to our high level sources in both China and Singapore, in some cases the code porting time differential is huge, like a few months to handle CUDA becoming few days to complete the MIC code port.
(2) Likely to match or exceed rival GPGPU solutions. (Based on VR-Zone's sources.)

Quote:
Intel is still tuning the clock speeds and final performance of the initial generation Xeon Phi, and, by the time the November SC show in the States comes, it might come much, much, closer to the claimed figures by Nvidia. Also, with Intel's process resources and binning capabilities, don't be surprised to see a few different MIC speed bins and even memory sizes, including a larger 16 GB RAM model which Nvidia can't match with the GK110 for now.

...As a result, organisations (supercomputing customers) are considering Intel's Xeon Phi as part of their future upgrade to pursue more computational performance. (Over Nvidia's Tesla...Which is currently being used by the top 10 supercomputers in the world.)



I actually would love to see Intel produce a cost-friendly, consumer-oriented version. (For enthusiasts, DIY'ers, students, etc...As this group can come up with some creative uses for the Xeon Phi.)
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Old 3rd August 2012, 9:15 AM   #14
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Intel Xeon Phi (B0 Stepping): The Knight in Shining Armor?
=> http://vr-zone.com/articles/intel-xe...or-/16871.html

The gist...
(Too much chit-chat in the article.)

A0 silicon
* rough 22nm design.
* 48, 52, or 60 cores. (At 1Ghz.)
* 1.5 to 1.9MB of L1 cache.
* 24 to 30MB of L2 cache.
* 4 or 8GB GDDR5 memory. (600Mhz to 1.125GHz in QDR mode.)
* Not competitive against flagship model of Nvidia's Tesla GPGPU line.

B0 silicon
* 57, 60, and 61 cores.
* 1.8 to 1.9MB of L1 cache.
* 28 to 30.5MB of L2 cache.
* 3GB, 6GB and 8GB of GDDR5 memory. (1.25 to 1.37GHz QDR mode.)
* Has Turbo mode. (Speeds undisclosed.)
* There are 5 models:
(1) 57 cores with 3GB GDDR5
=> 600MHz to 1.1GHz
=> 245W TDP
(2) 57 cores with 6GB GDDR5
=> 600MHz to 1.1GHz
=> 300W TDP
(3) 60 cores with 6GB GDDR5
=> 630MHz+ to 1.05 or 1.09GHz
=> 245W TDP
(4) 61 cores with 8GB GDDR5
=> 630MHz+ to 1.05 or 1.09GHz
=> 300W TDP
=> Two models: One comes with a passive heatsink, the other does not.
* Available with or without passive heatsink.
=> Ones without heatsink are destined for systems using third-party custom cooling implementations or liquid cooling.
* Active cooling (fan) heatsink only available with the 300W, 57 core + 6GB GDDR5 version.

Intel's goal is to push for 1 TFLOPS double precision and 2 TFLOPS single precision.



This is related in terms of real world application of the Xeon Phi...

Cray Signs Contract to Install Cascade Supercomputer and Sonexion Storage System at the Pawsey Centre
=> http://investors.cray.com/phoenix.zh...cle&ID=1717600

Quote:
Jul 24, 2012 -- Global supercomputer leader Cray Inc. (NASDAQ: CRAY) announced today it signed a contract with the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) to provide the Pawsey Centre in Perth, Australia with a next-generation Cray supercomputer code-named "Cascade" and a next-generation Cray Sonexion storage system. Consisting of products and services, the multi-year, multi-phase contract is valued at more than $21 million USD.

Located in Kensington, Western Australia, the Pawsey Centre will use Cray's Cascade supercomputer and Sonexion storage system to support the data-intensive science that will be carried out using the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) and Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) radio telescopes. The Cray systems will also be used by researchers and scientists at the Pawsey Centre to support additional research areas including geosciences, nanotechnology and biosciences. The Pawsey Centre is owned by CSIRO and managed by iVEC.
Quote:
Cray's Cascade supercomputer, which is expected to be widely available in 2013, is the next step in Cray's Adaptive Supercomputing vision. The system will feature major advancements to the Cray Linux Environment, Cray's HPC-optimized programming environment, and the next-generation Aries interconnect chipset. Cascade will also feature support for Intel® Xeon® processors -- a first for Cray's high-end systems -- and the Cascade system at the Pawsey Centre is expected to include the Intel® Xeon® Phi™ coprocessors based on Intel's Many Integrated Core (Intel® MIC) architecture.
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Old 3rd August 2012, 9:50 AM   #15
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=> 300W TDP

=> Two models: One comes with a passive heatsink, the other does not.
* Available with or without passive heatsink.
300w sounds like a lot to me, especially for 22nm and there is supposed to be a passive cooled option?

How do you passively cool ~300w? you would need a heatsink the size of a dog
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