Lately I've been getting back into some Apple ][ gaming, thanks to 4am's excellent Total Replay ProDOS image: I'm running Total Replay from a wDrive floppy disk drive emulator that I purchased recently from KbooHK. wDrive is a lower cost alternative to the Floppy Emu (although Floppy Emu also supports Macintosh whereas wDrive currently does not), and supports multiple image formats including John Morris's WOZ files which preserve the underlying disk structure at the flux level. You can read more about WOZ files here. With Total Replay 2.0 running on a 128k Apple //e with a joystick plugged in, there are 217 games that be run from 4am's front end menu system. In the interest of software preservation, 4am cracked all of these games (and many more) and has made individual images available via the Internet Archive collection here. More recently 4am has also been creating WOZ files of original disks - keeping the software protection intact. His WOZ A Day collection can be found here. Anyways, it didn't take long to realise that both of the Apple joysticks that I have had issues with the fire buttons - to the point where it made the gaming very frustrating. It turns out that button switch replacement is very easy and quick to do. Best thing is that the switches they used in these joysticks 35 years ago are still available brand new today! I have two different models of joystick - the older A2M2002 with the orange buttons, and the later A2M2012 model with the beige buttons: Opening these joysticks is a matter of removing the self adhesive rubber feet from the top left and bottom right positions (relative to the rear label) and then removing the screws that are recessed below the feet: The back will then lift off revealing the innards: Once open you can access the switches. The A2M2012 joystick that I show here is using Omron B3F switches - specifically the B3F4000 part which is rated at 3,000,000 switch cycles. I found that the older A2M2002 joystick I have uses Alps TACT series switches - the SKHCBFA010 part which is rated at 1,000,000 switch cycles. I'd be surprised if either of these joysticks had seen anywhere near that number of switch cycles but perhaps the switch contacts don't age well. In any case they needed to be replaced. The Omron part and the Alps part are interchangeable - they are the same physical size with compatible pinout. I found that a longer life Omron part was available - the B3F5000 which is rated at 10,000,000 cycles. The price was similar to the standard part (actually it was slightly cheaper!), so why not upgrade? I ordered a pack of 5 B3F5000 switches from RS (part number 686-6878) and they arrived the next day. Installing them was pretty straight forward. I started by carefully unclipping the existing switches from the joystick housing ... ... taking extra care not to misplace the tiny actuator springs from the bottom of the button behind the switch: I then clipped two new switches into position ... ... and then simply swapped the wiring connections from old to new, including the resistors: Once completed the wiring can be tidied, and the joystick can be reassembled for testing. Here are the repaired joysticks with the original switches - the A2M2002 and Alps switches on the left, and the A2M2012 and Omron switches on the right: For testing, what better tltle than Choplifter Both joysticks are now working perfectly - a nice cheap, simple repair which was well worth doing!