Nas Operating Systems

Discussion in 'Storage & Backup' started by Revenger, Jul 8, 2019.

  1. Revenger

    Revenger Member

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    This a thread for talking about all the diffrent NAS Operating Systems.
    If you are looking for all diffrent NAS file system formats and raid controller infomation we have a excelent thread by Elvis here which is well worth a read and a question asked when choosing a file system for your NAS Operating system.

    The most basic NAS you can have is MDADM (Software Raid) on Linux, Windows Storage Spaces or a hardware raid card.

    There are a few Linux operating systems that are designed for more dedicated NAS purposes.

    NAS Operating Systems List
    (You can even roll your own using MDADM on Linux Server OS and a range of software)

    Freenas (GPL)
    • BSD Based
    • ZFS File System
    • Can be heavy on resources, 8GB ram minimum
    • Uses BSD Jails for plugins (similar to docker with port and folder mapping)
    • Very well known (usually the goto for mocking as 'duh just use Freenas')
    NexentaStor (Enterprise / Community)
    • Solaris Based
    • ZFS File Ssystem
    • Community version only allows up to 10TB of storage and needs a free account
    Open Media Vault (GPL)
    • Debian based
    • EXT 3/4, XFS, JFS, BTRFS, (ZFS via plugin)
    • In my limited testing experiance on a VM can be slightly buggy
    Rockstor (GPL / Subscription)
    • Centos Based
    • BTRFS File System
    • Free gives you public updates (Via a repo change) and a nag screen to subscribe (can disable by commandline), paid gets you tested verified Enterprise updates
    U-Nas (GPL) (Download link)
    OCAU Thread

    • Debian 9 based
    • Chinese based desktop NAS similar to Synology with a desktop orientated GUI
    • XFS File System
    • Super easy to use
    • Not as many options presented to the user as say Synology DSM
    • Many applications from a package center like web based Office, Media and other Servers
    • Has their own branded Android apps similar to Synology
    Unraid (Paid Lifetime)
    OCAU Thread

    • Slackware Based
    • XFS, BTRFS, ReiserFS + Encryption
    • Isn't raid as such but uses a parity drive for redundancy
    • Individual drives can be read on other systems if needed
    • Very popular
    • Payment is based on number of drives attached 6/12/unlimited
    • Loads from a flash drive and runs from ram each boot
    Xigmanas (GPL)
    • FreeBSD based
    • ZFS File System
    • Originally was called Nas4Free a fork of a old Freenas version
    • Easier than Freenas
    • Not as heavy on resources
    Xpenology (Free)
    • Uses Synology DSM upon a open source bootloader
    • BTRFS File System
    • Can be tricky to keep updated
    Other - Highlighted DIY OS's (These you custom Build with a distro base)
    • OpenIndiana fork of OpenSolaris which was the community version of Solaris which invented ZFS
    • OmniOS minimal stand alone distro based on the Solaris platform
      Installs NAS components but minimal so install a GUI like Napp-It

    NAS Software (These can be installed ontop of a existing system)
    Open Media Vault
    • Web Interface for Debian based distros
    Napp-It
    • Web Interface for Solaris based Distros

    Relevant software for your NAS setup
    These arn't NAS specific programs but ones you may like to install to help manage and enhance your server experiance
    • Docker (Containerised apps for many services although on linux you can run most things native with some setup)
    • Virtualmin (Is useful for multi website hosting and related)
    • Webmin (Installed with Virtualmin or by itself is the system manager component can do a local DNS, FTP, Samba etc server)
    • Plex (Media transcodrer for your devices) (Limited for Free users)
    • Transmission (Useful for all your linux iso downloads)
    • Nomachine (Can create a virtual display for running GUI apps on a headless server make sure you install a lightweight window manager of choice ICEWM etc)
    • Jdownloader2 (Useful of grabbing files from URL fileshare links has a Android app)
    • Virtual Machine Management WEB GUI list (Let us know what works so we can add some to this list)

    ---
    If the lists above is missing anything please let me know.
    This post will be expanded with a explenation of each os and more details give me ideas for it.
     
    Last edited: Jul 19, 2019
  2. waltermitty

    waltermitty Member

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  3. OP
    OP
    Revenger

    Revenger Member

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    My bad don't need this thread then.
     
  4. OP
    OP
    Revenger

    Revenger Member

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    I have renamed the title and this thread will now become the general NAS Operating System thread.
    I will create a list in first post to diffrent forum threads and links to websites.
    We can discuss and compare the diffrent OS's here.
    There are a few threads for diffrent OS's but nothing central.

    I am in the process of looking at and planning a NAS for my dad.
    Today I sat down with him and we both agreed due to populatity to look at Unraid as it's one of the two mainstream ones.
    I am still torn between what will work and won't as he runs torrents for media downloads and a simple home webpage poorly hand coded, which he would be better off with wordpress or doing it in bootstrap.
    His main aim is to store media, photos, health and other documents etc.
    I pretty much narrowed it down to Unraid, U-Nas and Open Media Vault, Freenas could be a option depending but I found it a bit too confusing and with jails etc though docker in unraid is much the same.
    So if anyone has any ideas to post in here about them.
     
  5. broccoli

    broccoli Member

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    Before this Freenas there was another one/the same one, but before and that one then became Nas4free and they renamed it and it's called Xigmanas now. It's not as complicated as Freenas (I don't think) and you don't need humungous system specs to run it.

    EDIT: I don't know about torrents, I don't do that.
     
  6. darknebula

    darknebula Member

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    Switch your dad over to Usenet,
     
  7. OP
    OP
    Revenger

    Revenger Member

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    Added Xigma to the list with some info.
     
  8. broccoli

    broccoli Member

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    The now Freenas is the fork of the old freenas which became Nas4free (not that anyone cares :D)
    As for the "heavy on resources" bit, I couldn't install Freenas, my old HP microservers aren't good enough. You need 64-bit hardware and at least 8 gb ram.
    https://www.freenas.org/hardware-requirements/
    The other one runs fine on my crapola old hardware.
     
  9. OP
    OP
    Revenger

    Revenger Member

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    Tidied a few things up realised Open Media Vault is 100% free and the scruption thing was Rockstor so fixed that up.
    I installed both round the same time so got the two confused in features slightly.
    Added 8GB minimum to freenas listing.
    I wouldn't mind also putting what file systems they support as thats important but thats quite some work and will need to look into that at some stage.
     
  10. OP
    OP
    Revenger

    Revenger Member

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    Added the file systems to the list may have missed some.
     
  11. broccoli

    broccoli Member

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    For what it's worth (not much), I found Open Media Vault buggy (not in a VM). It crapped itself and wouldn't boot (originally did), started whining about missing dependencies. (I just nuked it and moved on, rather than trying to fix it or find out why.)
     
  12. wintermute000

    wintermute000 Member

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    I ran freenas for ages. Zero complaints as far as slinging files and keeping them safe goes. However, the 'plugin' system using BSD jails is far behind what you get from Synology, Qnap etc.

    Being a nerd forum I think you should add roll-your-own-nix into the mix. I have ZFS, KVM and dockerised services out the wazoo (Plex, sailing the high seas, SMTP/syslog/DNS/etc) on a nice ubuntu whitebox

    For the same price as a Atom and 4Gb Qnap/Synology I have 4x real intel skylake cores and 32Gb ECC and I can actually use it as a real PC if I want. I can run ansible, natively or in a VM or in a venv. I can vagrant up. I can use it as a remote python environment. The containers, idling VMs and storage basically have almost no overhead as far as I can tell unless I hammer it, the most demanding thing that's normally happening is a download or streaming files.

    Downside: no pretty GUI, have to wade into the guts to change drives boohoo which I could have fixed with a fancy case and front facing enclosures, have to use brain/google to do stuff, which being linux is basically never unless you want to change stuff.
     
    Last edited: Jul 13, 2019
  13. OP
    OP
    Revenger

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    Sounds much like what I saw online from people that used it, the lock on updates and error on updating as soon as it clean installed was a bit urgh for me.

    Have it kinda at the top 'mdadm on linux' but have a section if people find good stand alone nas applications to install ontop of a OS that can help with NAS stuff I will add them in there.
    I can also add a quick relevant software under the NAS software bit at the bottom which I will do now.

    What do people use for Qemu KVM as a web manager on servers?
     
    Last edited: Jul 13, 2019
  14. wintermute000

    wintermute000 Member

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    re: KvM web management, I tried kimchi/wok but it broke, since then its back to CLI, or virt-manager from the local or remote desktop environment.
    As a single node there's not too much to get fancy with anyway - create VM, delete VM, snapshot VM, backup VM and that's about it really.
    I don't have any advice to make anyone's life 'easier' sorry - I guess if you don't want to learn samba, mdadm/zfs etc. then its not for you
     
  15. OP
    OP
    Revenger

    Revenger Member

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    Added a link to a list of KVM software if people find really good web management ones I will add them in directly to the list.
    The list is sortable by CLI, WEB and GUI, so should be a good list for people to find something for them.
    While remote desktop GUI apps Virt-Manager are ok they can be extra hassel of setting up Nomachine & XRDP etc and logging in instead of a webui for a headless server to go with the rest of your webui apps.
     
    Last edited: Jul 15, 2019
  16. gea

    gea Member

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    You should first look at operating system like Free-BSD, Linux, Solarish or Windows and then to management tools. The OS defines storage features and -capabilities, the web-management GUI only handling and services outside nas and storage (media or photo tools etc).

    Quite the most advanced filesystem for a storage server is ZFS, so do not forget the Unix options from the inventor of ZFS: Oracle Solaris (nonfree for commercial use but the fastest and most feature rich ZFS storage OS) and the operating systems around Illumos, an OpenSource Solaris fork - mainly OpenIndiana (more or less the successor of OpenSolaris in a desktop and server edition) and the minimalistic OmniOS.

    OmniOS is a perfect production ready storage OS. It is feature complete in its own for an FC/iSCSI, NFS and SMB server without 3rd party tools as Sun had invented NFS, created its own multithredad SMB server (not SAMBA) and Comstar, an enterprise ready FC/iSCSI stack. Very minimalistic and ultra robust (Just enough Storage OS) with a stable, long term stable and dev release - in the meantime with native ZFS encryption per ZFS filesystem (in OpenIndiana as well).

    For all of these operating systems, I offer the web management tool napp-it that you can use freely in a base edition without support. There is also the commercial NexentaStor with a Community edition. NexentaStor is another Illumos distribution.

    https://omniosce.org/
    https://www.openindiana.org/
    https://www.napp-it.org
     
    Last edited: Jul 18, 2019
  17. OP
    OP
    Revenger

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    Great post I added a few of this stuff to the first post.
    For the rest unsure how to intergrate that to the first post.
    If anyone wants to help make the first post better let me know and send me some PM's with revisions.

    As it is the list is coming along nicely and lots of stuff and diffrences I wouldn't have known about.
    So I am sure it will be useful for all the geeks here with terrabytes of storage.
     
  18. OP
    OP
    Revenger

    Revenger Member

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    Setting up Unraid on my dads N40L its pretty good.
    Lots of Community Plugins I am seeing for docker with updating support.
    I need to find a good basic webserver for Unraid as my dad has a site about himself and hobbies any ideas?
     
    Last edited: Jul 22, 2019
  19. Symon

    Symon Castigat ridendo mores

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    Built my backup NAS last night, FreeNAS and Xigmanas didn't like my HBA card, and I didn't want to pay for Unraid - so Open media vault it is!

    Seems to be a few glitches with it, sometimes the GUI hangs whilst applying setting changes but for the application it should be fine.
     

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